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The topics treated are not adapted to the tastes of many in this age, and to most persons the principles discussed will be as riddles ­ quite enigmatical (Ps. 128:2). The testimony of Christ's witnesses has never been acceptable to the world, least of all to backsliders. Nevertheless, there is warrantable ground to expect that what is contained in the following pages will be helpful to some in following ages, who may be moved by the Spirit of God to inquire and search for the "landmarks which the fathers have set." Among these will be found that grand "international document," the Solemn League (and Covenant ­ RB), ready to be placed in the foundation of the millennial temple. "When the Lord shall build up Zion, he shall appear in his glory," and, with an eye to that highest and most desirable end, this contribution is with humble confidence committed to his patronage (David Steele, Reminiscences: Historical and Biographical of a Ministry in the Reformed Presbyterian Church, During 53 Years, [1883] SWRB reprint 1997, pp. 3-4).

These modern pigmies are too far dwarfed in intellectual stature to measure the altitude ­too long, and too deeply steeped in earth's politics, to estimate the latitude, of our glorious Covenanted Reformation ­a Reformation which, imbedded in the law and the covenant of God, has already brought civil and ecclesiastical freedom to many millions; and which is doubtless destined to be laid in the foundation of reconstructed society in the millennial period of the world (Reformed Presbytery, A Short Vindication of Our Covenanted Reformation, [1879] SWRB reprint 1996, p. 4).

(T)hese two witnesses have always testified ­not formally against pagans or infidels as such; but ­against apostate Christians, as composing an organized and complex system of opposition to the Lord and His Anointed. And just here, the witnesses have detected the secret of Antichrist's successful enterprise among the human family... "Many false prophets are gone out into the world... this is a deceiver and an Antichrist," 2 John 7. The combination is ostensibly on the side and in the interest of Christ, and the elements of which Antichrist is composed were obviously professing Christians, "They went out from us, but they were not of us, for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us," I John 2:19. Here is the apostasy, and so the witnesses are fully borne out in asserting that Antichrist is a great Christian apostasy! To trace the origin and development, in the organization and modifications of this enemy of all righteousness, is the special work of Christ's witnesses (David Steele, The Two Witnesses: Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture and Special Work, [1859] SWRB reprint 1998, pp. 17-18).

(T)hese witnesses are called and commissioned to testify especially against Antichrist ­a false christ, and therefor an opposing christ. But Christ is to be considered either personally or mystically; either abstractly in his personal rights and prerogatives, or in the concrete, in the rights and immunities of his church. There is this prejudice, too prevalent, against Christians testifying against Christians! This we are often told, is contrary to the law of charity. We have not so learned Christ. They are not all Israel which are of Israel. Much of the business of these two prophets is to oppose prophets ­to prophesy against the shepherds, Ezek. 34:2. Moses with his miracles must confront the magicians with their enchantments, Exod. 8:19. Elijah must confront the prophets of Baal, 1 Kings 18:25. Paul must counteract false apostles, 2 Cor. 11:13. In short, the direct object of these witnesses' testimony is apostate christendom ­those who depart from the faith, 1 Tim. 4:1 ­who have gone out from fellowship and renounced the doctrines of the apostolic church, 1 John 2:19. Their special work is to testify against error and its propagators and abettors, together with ungodliness, the natural fruit of error, rather than against pagans (David Steele, The Two Witnesses: Their Cause, Number, Character, Furniture and Special Work, [1859] SWRB reprint 1998, p. 14).

We shall also, according to our places and callings, in this common cause of religion, liberty, and peace of the kingdoms, assist and defend all those that enter into this League and Covenant, in the maintaining and pursuing thereof; and shall not suffer ourselves, directly or indirectly, by whatsoever combination, persuasion, or terror, to be divided or withdrawn from this blessed union and conjunction, whether to make defection to the contrary part, or to give ourselves to a detestable indifferency or neutrality in this cause, which so much concerneth the glory of God, the good of the kingdom, and honour of the king; but shall, all the days of our lives, zealously and constantly continue therein against all opposition, and promote the same, according to our power, against all lets and impediments whatsoever; and what we are not able ourselves to suppress or overcome, we shall reveal and make known, that it may be timely prevented or removed: All which we shall do as in the sight of God (The Solemn League and Covenant, subscribed by the Westminster Divines in 1643, Article VI).

The LORD said, Verily it shall be well with thy remnant; verily I will cause the enemy to entreat thee well in the time of evil and in the time of affliction. Shall iron break the northern iron and the steel? Thy substance and thy treasures will I give to the spoil without price, and that for all thy sins, even in all thy borders. And I will make thee to pass with thine enemies into a land which thou knowest not: for a fire is kindled in mine anger, which shall burn upon you. O LORD, thou knowest: remember me, and visit me, and revenge me of my persecutors; take me not away in thy longsuffering: know that for thy sake I have suffered rebuke. Thy words were found, and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me the joy and rejoicing of mine heart: for I am called by thy name, O LORD God of hosts. I sat not in the assembly of the mockers, nor rejoiced; I sat alone because of thy hand: for thou hast filled me with indignation. Why is my pain perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed? wilt thou be altogether unto me as a liar, and as waters that fail? Therefore thus saith the LORD, If thou return, then will I bring thee again, and thou shalt stand before me: and if thou take forth the precious from the vile, thou shalt be as my mouth: let them return unto thee; but return not thou unto them. And I will make thee unto this people a fenced brazen wall: and they shall fight against thee, but they shall not prevail against thee: for I am with thee to save thee and to deliver thee, saith the LORD. And I will deliver thee out of the hand of the wicked, and I will redeem thee out of the hand of the terrible (Jer. 15:11-21).

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